OPPOSITION Leader Don Polye has warned his political opponents to stop using him as a “political commodity for their personal gain”.
Mr Polye issued the warning on Wednesday at a ceremony where supporters of his rival candidates at Upper Marient in Kandep defected vowed to support him in this year’s election.
“Our governor Peter Ipatas does not get the projects for his Irelya village in Enga Province on merit,” Mr Polye said.
“Ipatas uses me as a political commodity to gain them. He usually tells prime ministers including the current one that he will distract Polye from concentrating on toppling them.
THE Tourism, Arts and Culture award was a new category in the Crocodile Prize national literary competition in 2015, its inclusion coming after an offer by the Tourism Minister at the 2014 awards.
The award was intended to highlight writing related to travel and tourism.
Travel writing is a real art and some of the great travel writers became legends in their own right. What they do is present their subject in an entertaining, reflective and informative narrative.
An essential part of such writing is the 'back story’, linking the writer’s own experience to the travel narrative in a coherent and readable way that piques the reader’s curiosity. If not done well, the travel piece can read just like an advertisement.
THE Special Agriculture Business Lease (SABL) practice is having a direct impact on the environment and cultural values, says customary landowner Anna Sipona.
Anna comes from Malmal village in East New Britain Province where logging has exploited the environment.
She explained that their forest has disappeared under SABL and the people in her village live as if they don’t own land.
The land in Malmal is under a 99-year lease agreement and the people have been told by the developers that their land is now state land.
SIMBU provincial administrator Joe Kunda Naur MBE has assigned Simbu provincial events coordinator Jack Kupa to work with the Simbu Writers Association to open dialogue on Kundiawa-Noosa relationship during Keith Jackson’s imminent visit to Simbu Province.
On Tuesday Jimmy Awagl and I representing SWA met with Mr Kunda in his office at Kondom Agaundo House in Kundiawa.
After firing some missiles at us on past matters he wasn’t happy about, the Administrator acknowledged the work that SWA and Simbu Children Foundation have being doing for Simbu and said great things can be achieved through partnership, the right ethics, diplomacy and following proper protocols.
IT IS with the greatest of sadness that I mourn with the rest of Bougainville the passing of one of this nation’s finest statesmen, the late Governor-General His Excellency Sir Michael Ogio.
The late Sir Michael Ogio served this nation and the people of Bougainville with commitment and great distinction.
His long career began as an educator, politician and peacemaker and finally he held the highest office in the land as Governor-General.
Sir Michael was a staunch Catholic and family man; he was a man amongst men, a leader with a heart for his people. His selflessness and Christian values were the hallmark of his jovial attitude to life, which he lived to the full.
DIDDIE Kinuman Jackson was late to arrive at the 2014 Crocodile Awards at the Australian High Commission in Port Moresby. We had already presented the awards and assumed she was unable to attend.
However, as we stood around nibbling the finger food and sipping drinks, Diddie arrived accompanied by her parents. All three wore colour-coordinated clothes - beautifully blue, brown and white patterned dresses and shirt.
Diddie had clearly been anticipating the award night but something had made her late. So we held a small post-ceremony in a corner of the room under the amused and watchful eye of Sir Paulias Matane, that evening himself a recipient of an award for his long contribution to Papua New Guinean literature.
PAPUA New Guinea’s prime minister Peter O’Neill has expressed confidence that he will return to power and form a new government after this year’s national elections.
Speaking at a ceremony committing a further K500,000 in funding to the new Apenda Provincial High School in his Ialibu-Pangia electorate, Mr O’Neill said his government will continue its free education and health care policies – even as the policies are creaking at the seams.
“The People’s National Congress Party-led government is fully committed to our tuition fee free education policy and to building education from the grass-roots up,” he said.
MARTYN NAMORONG | Medium
I RECENTLY attended a lecture on social mapping by Dr Andrew Moutu, an eminent scholar of Papua New Guinea’s identity narratives.
Dr Moutu’s lecture centred around the rules that set the boundaries of “insiders” and “outsiders” in terms of how tribal people present themselves to companies and the government.
Whilst Dr Moutu’s dialectic focused on the corporatisation of tribal groups to attain legal visibility, I was fascinated by how his discourse could be applied in the context of PNG’s 2017 general elections.
Just as in the context of resource extractions, divisions are created in the boundaries of social groupings; there is disaggregation of social groups into “supporters” of candidates.
I HAVE a very nice fibre bag woven and coloured in island style given to me by Agnes Maineke at the 2014 Crocodile Prize awards in Port Moresby. It is a reminder of the diminutive and gentle woman who won that year’s short story award.
Meeting people like Agnes, who have experienced great trauma in their lives, is a humbling experience. At first sight it is hard to imagine the strength and determination that resides within her.
The Bougainville civil war of the 1990s brought to the surface a well of strength and resilience, and she needed every drop of it.
Agnes is not alone of course. Many ordinary people have had similar experiences and have survived as different and sturdier people.
My Walk to Equality, edited by Rashmii Amoah Bell, Pukpuk Publications, 278 pages. Paperback $US10.53 or Kindle $US1.00. ISBN-10: 1542429242. ISBN-13: 978-1542429245. Available here from Pukpuk Publications. The book will be launched in Port Moresby on 8 March and in Brisbane on 16 March
IN a country that boasts over 800 languages and has a strong tradition of oral history and storytelling, it is unsurprising that My Walk to Equality is thoroughly engaging, entertaining and thought provoking.
That it is written entirely by Papua New Guinean women adds another layer of depth and complexity.
PNG women are an amazing breed; they carry a burden of family and community responsibility that encompasses wage-earning, fruit and vegetable farming, animal husbandry, childcare, aged care and home maintenance.
BOUGAINVILLE president John Momis, just back from hospitalisation in the Philippines, says the people of the autonomous province have a dream to create a new socio-economic political and moral order as they stand on the threshold of a referendum on independence.
An energised Dr Momis said the dream is within the reach of the Bougainville people but they first have a responsibility to implement the Bougainville Peace Agreement.
“Undeniably, we have problems on Bougainville but we have also achieved a lot since the inception of the Autonomous Bougainville Government,” Dr Momis said. “We now have the power to develop our own education and health policies and others such as finance and mining.”
KELA Kapkora Sil Bolkin has been a consistent and popular writer for many years and his work submitted to the Crocodile Prize began has consistently been of high quality.
He has also authored a significant book, launched in Canberra in 2013, The Flight of Galkope, a magical combination of Simbu history and myth brought to modern times with a thoughtful discussion about the prodigious Simbu diaspora.
Sil never ceases to surprise with the range of topics he addresses in his essays. Stylistically, he walks in the footsteps of the great essayists.
His work is informative, topical, funny or quirky and, very importantly, offers a personal touch. He writes in a style we are beginning to recognise as from the ‘Simbu School’ of writing. He has no respect for stultifying political correctness.
THERE was something of a crisis at the Port Moresby General Hospital early last Friday night.
The weekend had arrived – not to mention the onset of the usual Friday night procession of smashes, clashes and crashes – and Dr Sam Yockopua, the hospital’s chief of emergency medicine and 18-year public health veteran – was alarmed.
So alarmed, in fact, that he took to Facebook with a public appeal for help.
“SOS call for kind donations,” he wrote. “As at 6:35pm, after supervision of the pm shift work, at POM Gen Emergency Department; we have none of the following….”
Published under the headline ‘PNG waste stretches neighbourly concern’
GLOBE-trotting fashionista foreign minister Julie Bishop needs to explain why Australian taxpayers are bankrolling Papua New Guinea’s vanity projects when that nation is economically febrile — if it has not already fallen into the pit — and our own economy is wallowing.
Numerous companies doing business with the PNG government have not been paid monies owed, the government itself has not met bills for its own instrumentalities, and we are picking up the cheque.
Last week both the PNG Parliament House and the Governor-General’s residency had their electricity cut off because of more than $320,000 in unpaid bills.
IN early 2013, the Crocodile Prize for Literature entered its initial year under the administration of the just-formed Papua New Guinea Society of Writers, Editors and Publishers.
Unfortunately things did not run smoothly in the new organisation and one result was that the number of entries fell far below that of previous years.
The Society was also unable to secure sponsors for a number of award categories, nor could it secure funding for the annual writers’ workshop.
As it became apparent that the project was failing, emergency measures were taken and a small group – which came to be known as the Crocodile Prize Organising Group, or COG – seized control.
PAPUA New Guinea is only four months away from the 2017 national election with voting starting on 24 June and ending on 8 July.
The next crop of legislators are somewhere in those thousands of men and women of all persuasions who are campaigning hard and hoping to be elected.
Whether the next parliament will be any better than the 2012-17 parliament is easy to predict.
In the Lufa Open Electorate of the Eastern Highlands we are anticipating a long-awaited change of the guard which could set solid foundations for our journey further into the 21st century.
I HAD only been six weeks at Vanimo Patrol Post when I was transferred to Aitape in October 1955 to take over the Sub-District.
In those days, the huge Sepik District had five sub-districts (Aitape, Angoram, Lumi, Maprik, Telefomin and Wewak), each under the control of an Assistant District Officer, who was a power in the land.
ADO’s told people what to do and they did things themselves. They were the peacemakers and the peacekeepers, the law enforcers, the senior police officers, the District Court magistrates, the gaolers, the arbitrators, the counsellors and the mentors.
I was five months as acting ADO at Aitape before I reverted back to Patrol Officer, making way for ADO Arthur (AT) Carey, who had been moved to Aitape to make way for Fred (FPC) Kaad to take over at Maprik.
IN 2014 the Cleland Family Award for Heritage Writing in the Crocodile Prize received a record number of entries.
This was a breakthrough. When Bob Cleland first proposed the award we wondered whether it would spark interest amongst writers who seemed to prefer contemporary themes.
It did and the judges were delighted – eventually whittling the entries down to six which were presented to Bob for the final determination of a winner.
In choosing the six finalists the judges were mindful of Bob’s original intention that this award contribute to recording cultural practises and beliefs that are now rarely practised and fading in people’s memories.
IN a mature democracy what has transpired under the reign of the current government would trigger dissent among the citizens.
This would be especially the case in its handling of major corruption cases, massive land grabbing orchestrated by foreigners and government officials, the financing of infrastructure projects and the struggling economy itself.
The students strike at UPNG last year led for a time looked like setting off a chain reaction that could potentially cause the downfall of the government. It did not and is now just another chapter in our nation’s tumultuous history.
ELECTRICITY supplies to Papua New Guinea’s parliament house, the national police headquarters, and government house have been disconnected for non-payment of bills.
PNG Power Ltd — the country’s monopoly, state-owned company responsible for the generation, transmission, distribution and retail of electricity — said these institutions owe it about $450,000.
The bills have not been paid since last November.
The institutions have been closed since they were disconnected on Tuesday, leaving them without lighting, air-conditioning and telecommunications.
AUSTRALIA’S once secure sphere of influence in the South Pacific is coming under increasing threat from expanding Chinese activity in the region.
In particular China is showing a strong desire to engage in a number of projects and partnerships within Papua New Guinea, a country that Australia has maintained a dominant influence over since it granted it independence in 1975.
Despite Australia’s belief that PNG is a strategic part of its “backyard,” it is only natural that as PNG develops greater economic capabilities it will undoubtedly seek a wider range of strategic partners of its own.
Keith Jackson AM and Cr Ingrid Jackson are ready to advance discussions on a Kundiawa-Noosa sister town relationship, but do Simbu Administrator Joe Kunda Naur MBE and Governor Hon Noah Kool have the wisdom to embrace the concept for the benefit of the Simbu people?
This is particularly relevant as the whole concept falls within the provincial government’s own Tourism, Arts and Culture Policy launched in Kundiawa just a few months ago.
Last Tuesday, while Simbu Writers Association delegates were waiting in the corridor of Kondom Agaundo House in Kundiawa to have an audience with the Simbu Provincial Administrator, a follow up to the letter that we had delivered the week before, the email signal on my mobile phone triggered.
The email was from Keith and I was surprised and at the same time excited when I read it.
AS we do in today’s dynamic employment environment, I recently updated my professional profile or curriculum vitae (CV).
Having gone through this exercise, I realised that I’d omitted a major part of my life.
Like with most people, my CV emphasised the educational institutions I’d attended, the positions I’d held, my career successes and influential people I’d crossed paths with.
It focused on the learning, skills and qualifications an employer might be interested in. It captured what I can do and how I do it.
But it was void on the matters of who I am and why I do the things I do.
WINSTON Churchill’s aphorism “the empires of the future are the empires of the mind” brings into view possibilities yet to be realised.
He uttered those words when space exploration was a dim possibility, the digital revolution an impossible dream and the scope of advances in modern technology unknown.
But through sheer power of the imagination, people were able to dream of possibilities and create things that had previously not existed.
Humans were bold thinkers who could imagine new horizons with unlimited opportunities.
THE Paga Hill Development Company is contemplating legal action against government minister Justin Tkatchenko after he attacked the treatment of squatters who were removed from Paga Hill to enable a major urban development in Port Moresby.
Tkatchenko (far right) is a local parliamentarian in Port Moresby and is believed to be seeking re-election at national elections in June this year.
The company accused Tkatchenko of diverting attention from his own inaction and “stirring the political pot for [his] own selfish purposes.”
In a letter released to the media, CEO Gudmundur (Gummi) Fridriksson (above) and director Stanley Kuli Liria demand that Tkatchenko immediately retract what they refer to as “defamatory and baseless statements in relation to our squatter resettlement initiative and title acquisition” by the end of today.
NOW here’s a challenge our readers may be able to solve. It concerns a man named Tom Low (or Lowe), his long dead father and his search for relatives.
Reader Dr Mark Schubert of Brisbane was recently at Riuriu Village on Liot (also known as Boudeuse) Island in the remote Western islands of Manus Province.
While there, Mark was approached by Tom (pictured right) who was born in 1932 to a mother from the Western Islands and an Australian father from Brisbane - a man called Low (or Lowe).
Tom’s father was managing Mal Plantation in the Western Islands at the time and it was pretty idyllic, if remote, life until 1942 when Japanese troops invaded.
Tom's father, along with a group of other Australians, fled south from the Western Islands to Wewak, only to be captured and killed there by the Japanese.
LAPIEH Landu won the inaugural prize for women’s writing in the first Crocodile Prize in 2011.
In 2013 the category was retired because the women writers of Papua New Guinea had clearly demonstrated that they did not need any special consideration.
The women had shown this in overwhelming style by taking out the majority of the prizes in the 2012 contest.
Winning the poetry prize in 2013 against formidable writers like Michael Dom, Jeff Febi and “the bush poet” Jimmy Drekore was a considerable achievement.
THE launch of the new Buka urban council office complex this week will ensure the continuing progress of the town’s facelift.
The building, costing K600,000, was co-funded by the New Zealand and Australian governments - and New Zealand's foreign minister, Murray McCully says his nation is assisting Bougainville "for the long haul".
Buka town mayor John Angamata thanked the governments for funding the building which would go a long way in the drive to develop Buka town.
“Our partners have always been an integral part of the development on Bougainville and we are very appreciative of this,” Mr Angamata said.
PAPUA New Guinea’s foreign affairs and immigration minister Rimbink Pato has announced administrative arrangements are being finalised for dual citizenship to become a reality in March.
"Dual citizenship is a new concept for PNG and creates great opportunities for our people at home and around the world,” Mr Pato said.
"Through dual citizenship our best and brightest can retain their connection with their homeland and not be hampered by bureaucracy.
"With dual citizenship we are better able to attract skilled workers who will be able to stay and build a home in PNG but still be able to return with ease to their place of birth to see family.
PAUL FLANAGAN | PNG Economics
PAPUA New Guinea’s international economic situation is much more frail than the picture presented by the O'Neill government, a recent International Monetary Fund report indicates.
Calling PNG’s foreign reserves position 'weak', the IMF said the country has less than one-third the recommended level in its international bank account.
And this is despite the current foreign exchange rationing that is hurting business, investment and jobs.
PNG claims it has foreign reserves to cover 13 months of imports but the independent umpire, the IMF, says the figure is only 3.2 months. The suggested level for a country like PNG is around 10 months.
AUSTRALIA’S offshore immigration detention regime could constitute a crime against humanity, a petition before the International Criminal Court from a coalition of legal experts has alleged.
On Monday morning, a 108-page legal submission from the Global Legal Action Network (Glan) and the Stanford International Human Rights Clinic was submitted to the court, detailing what the network describes as the “harrowing practices of the Australian state and corporations towards asylum seekers”.
The petition submits the office of the prosecutor of the ICC should open an investigation into possible “crimes against humanity committed by individuals and corporate actors”.
THE publisher of PNG Attitude and friend of Simbu and Papua New Guinea, Keith Jackson AM, and his family, are making a special trip to Kundiawa in early March.
Keith will be accompanied by his wife, Councillor Ingrid Jackson, son Ben Jackson, his partner Becky Finzel and their three-year old daughter Leilani.
Members of the Simbu Writers Association are well prepared for this visit and are urging the Simbu Provincial Government to officially receive them.
Keith and Ingrid will be travelling from Brisbane to Port Moresby where they will meet members of the PNG Attitude family.
IN early 2013, when Australia’s incumbent Labor government was busily self-destructing and it looked certain the Liberals would win the upcoming election, Papua New Guinea’s prime minister, Peter O’Neill, was anxiously trying to contact opposition leader Tony Abbott to arrange a meeting in Port Moresby.
Abbott was happy to travel to PNG to talk to O’Neill but was firmly under the thumb of his micro-managing chief of staff, Peta Credlin, and she forbade it.
The opposition leader had been hammering the Australian public with simplistic slogans, including his moronic ‘Stop the Boats’. Apparently this is what O’Neill wanted to talk to him about.
IN this modern era, most parents discharge their parental duties with diligence and aspire that their children complete school and craft a career in life.
But conversely, some mothers chew tons of betel nut, smoke like highlands fires and gamble the family’s savings to deficit.
And some fathers fall for the lure of sex workers, fleecing their mates, drink their heads off and leave nothing behind in the trough of life.
In fact, it does seem that most parents sit on their backsides and care little about giving their children a decent formal education.
IN Papua New Guinea, it is illegal to cultivate, groom, store, consume and trade marijuana.
Marijuana, or cannabis, is the main illegal drug produced and consumed in large amounts in PNG. It is cultivated for private use and for sale locally and overseas. Reports suggest it is also bartered for weapons.
Medical research show the effects of smoking marijuana fade quickly, but the drug can be detected in the body for weeks, sometimes longer. It depends on how often it is used or how much the user has consumed.
The most common effect upon a user is that, as a result of prolonged use, it alters the mind.
This woman, supposed to nurse my wound,
threw me a packet of illicit pills,
and told me to take 'em two at a time.
She squeezed my hand as I paid the bill.
Said "I don't do business like that ma'am."
Gave me a smooch and whispered in my ear,
"Bills for a pill 'n' a moment o' thrill,
else ya ain't gettin' no shit outta here!"
I got up and made my way to the door.
"Hey, wait!" She pleaded, tugging at my shirt.
I took off my hat and showed her the wound.
"I came for pills, not to turn a pervert."
"If you will, I must get home, for Pete's sake.
But I'll hold your sins in mind for keepsake."
THERE are many opportunities in a country that is developing and many entrepreneurs are attracted to the honeypot – good and bad.
Most times, the onus is on the government to screen interested investors – checking legal compliance, financial security, documented risks, historical records, decent management and administration systems and the rest.
But as we venture into the realm of sustainable management practices, there can be ignorance, confusion and negativity amongst undeveloped communities in rural areas.
AS was Leonard Fong Roka, Francis Nii was an early contributor to the Crocodile Prize and we first met him when he attended the writers’ workshop and Prize awards ceremony at the Australian High Commission in Port Moresby in 2011.
Of all the people we have met since inaugurating the Prize, Francis stands out not so much because he is a paraplegic confined to a wheelchair and all the problems that entails but because of his strength of character and commitment to literature in Papua New Guinea and his Simbu homeland.
His gentle winning essay in the 2013 Crocodile Prize was a direct and unusual response to the negative publicity that Papua New Guinea receives in a largely ignorant and unfeeling Australian media following the announcement of the deal to banish asylum seekers to Manus Island.
Rather than a predictable diatribe about the insensitivity of Australian journalists, the essay takes a much gentler course and uses humour and homespun wisdom to demonstrate that life for many Papua New Guineans, particularly in rural areas, is good.
IN EARLY 2013 Ghatane-Lulú was walking along Ela Beach at 6.30 a.m. when a young teenager, Katie (not her real name) called to him, “Fada, yu gat wan kina oh, mi no kaikai tudeis na mi laik dai ya”. [Father, do you have a kina; I haven’t eaten for two days and I feel like dying]
Well, he does meet plenty of the types, some genuine and some thugs, but has never been approached by a young lass like this. At first he ignored her, walked past but, after walking ten paces, turned around and walked back to her.
Some inner being told him to give her the ten kina he had with him to buy breakfast at the Ela Beach Service Station. Katie broke down and cried. This is her story.
IN 2012, the winner of the only award the Crocodile Prize ever offered for student writing, Angeline Low, wrote an incredibly powerful short story, ‘Going through the Unimaginable’.
It was outstanding for several reasons. First, the subject matter was extremely sensitive and would test the talents of someone much older than her 16 years.
The story also had a ring of authenticity, helped tremendously by Angeline’s confident control of dialogue and narrative as the tension built up to its shocking conclusion.
Finally, the story was a bold attempt to expose an element of society often shamefully hidden.
THE Crocodile Prize created a special category for women writers in 2011 because it took a while for entries by women to materialise.
But by 2012, women were active and effective participants in the contest. It was clear no special treatment was required and in subsequent years the category was dropped.
The fact that the award was still offered in 2012 and that women dominated most of the categories anyway made it extra difficult to select a winner.
To solve this problem, special attention was given to the relevance of the subject matter to women when judging the women’s award.
IN my work with rural people on needs assessment, financial literacy and land use planning, I have seen many changes in Papua New Guinea’s local communities.
While many people believe that changes have been for the better, most have been challenged to the core because they feel their expectations have been half met.
As a result, they have taken initiatives to create their own income earning opportunities utilising their knowledge and resources.
As a local trainer and community engagement specialist, I have been facilitating community needs assessments and engaging with local communities wanting to develop their land.
I HAVE always unashamedly taken huge pride in my beautiful and unique country, Papua New Guinea – the world leader in languages and cultures. And with a long tradition of law.
PNG was not in a legal vacuum when Europeans colonised its tribes. It already had customary laws governing its affairs.
The colonisers ignored these laws and imposed their own. So today about 98% of the legal principles governing PNG have their origin in English common law, which could adequately address problems back in England but not necessarily in PNG.
Our problems can be unique, but a Melanesian jurisprudence can adequately deal with them.
Indeed, our forefathers saw the weakness of English common law and duly made provision in our Constitution for us to develop our own version of it which is referred to as ‘underlying law’ or indigenous jurisprudence.
SO we move to the announcement of the five shortlisted writers in contention for the 2016 Cleland Family Award for Heritage Writing in the Crocodile Prize.
In announcing the shortlist, I must express my gratitude to my fellow committee members Marlene Dee Gray Potoura, Martyn Namorong, Gretel Matawan, Ruth Moiam, Baka Bina and Joycelin Leahy.
There was a total of 22 entries in the heritage writing category. The Cleland family has sponsored this category since 2012. The people of PNG, especially those who benefit from the award, are in debt to this family and the committee is grateful for their generosity and continued support.
THE Papua New Guinea government must get serious about decreasing the number of deaths caused by lifestyle diseases, according to a researcher.
Scientist Andrew Pus conducted research on obesity in Port Moresby and his findings have been made public on the Scientific Research Publishing website.
Mr Pus is from the Western Highlands and holds a master’s degree in health sciences from the Graduate School of Bio-Medical and Health Sciences at Hiroshima University in Japan. His research spanned more than three years and was conducted as part of his graduate requirement.
Obesity accounts for an estimated 2.8 million deaths worldwide and is the fifth leading risk for death according to recent data from the World Health Organisation.
THIS year’s business forecasts in Papua New Guinea are looking more modest than previously, but there’s no doubting that better things are on the horizon for Port Moresby in 2017.
The city’s skyline is set to change over the next 18 months with the addition of new commercial, residential, hotel and retail buildings planned across the region.
With a range of projects in various stages of development, it’s a race against time to complete them before the 2018 APEC Summit.
RECENTLY I finished reading Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar by Simon Sebag Montefiore - an exhaustively researched book of great erudition by the British born, Russian speaking author.
Montefiore traces the rise to power of Joseph Stalin, who ruled Russia from 1929 to 1953 and effectively created the Soviet Union.
Like most of the early Bolsheviks (Russian communists), Stalin was poorly educated but totally committed to the cause of communism.
He was also a man of ferocious intelligence, considerable cunning and a great deal of energy, which enabled him to rise through the ranks of the communist party until, ultimately, he achieved total personal dominance over the party and its membership.
Stalin became, as the title of Montefiore's book says, the Red Tsar.
THERE are differing views among parents and teachers about Papua New Guinea’s tuition fee free policy.
The government’s policy is well-intended and should be seen as heavily subsidising tuition fees, which does leave some responsibility for tuition fees with the parents.
But this is not the case now. The government wants to pay full fees and has told parents to ensure this direction is complied with by schools.
Since its inception the tuition fee free policy has placed schools under stress. Some of the best schools in the country, which were held in high esteem, are no longer excellent as a result of the policy.
Schools are struggling and deteriorating rapidly in all aspects. It’s a shambles. School management and boards are confused on how they can reinstate them to effectiveness.